Infrared Sensor

What is Infrared sensor?
IR(Infrared sensor) is used to detect the object in its proximity. Along with this, it can also be used to detect the shade (Dark-Blackish or Light-Whitish) of an object under certain condition. They are inspired by pyrophilous (fire loving) insects. Being highly sensitive to infrared (IR) reception, they are able to detect forest fires at considerable distances. SImilarly, IR sensors work on the principle of reflection of light.

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Scientific Fact and Applications
There exist 2 crucial components in the IR module; those are the IR Transmitter (IR Tx-LED) and IR Receiver (IR Rx-Photodiode or Phototransistor). Even though an IR Tx LED looks like a normal LED, the radiation emitted by it is invisible to the human eye.

Pinout
VCC: Vcc pin called the power pin, powers the modules(i.e. is typically connected to 5V)
Out: Out pin provides a HIGH voltage when an object is detected in the sensor’s proximity
Potentiometer: Proximity distance can be adjusted by rotating the knob of the potentiometer
GND: Sensor module’s GND is connected to GND of the system(i.e. to GND pin of Arduino in our case

Specifications
Operating Voltage: 3.0V – 5.0V
Detection range: 2cm – 30cm (Adjustable using potentiometer)
Current Consumption: at 3.3V : ~23 mA, at 5.0V: ~43 m0041
Active output level: Outputs High logic level when an obstacle is detected

Applications:

Thermal Imaging
Modern day IR sensors are used to image thermally which in turn has multiple applications associated to it, such as sensing humans in disastrous situations.

Infrared Remotes
Everyday appliances use IR sensors in it, such as Television, Air Conditioners considering the easy usability and low cost of implementation.